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Glossary Index

Avalanche Institute


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Also: Ram Penetrometer, Ram Profile, Ram Resistance

A cone penetrometer driven vertically into the snowpack by a weighted hammer on a rule guide rod.

A graphical profile that exhibits ram resistance with depth is called a Ram Profile.

The ram resistance is an index of the relative hardness of snow as measured by a rammesonde. R=nHf/P, where n=number of blows, f=vertical fall height of the hammer, H=weight of the hammer and guide rod, and P=penetration depth.

This glossary is a work in progress and is made possible by AlpenPro.